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Approximations to Three Essential Functions of Standard Normal Distribution

Ramu Yerukala, Naveen Kumar Boiroju, Kollu Ranga Rao


This paper presents simple approximations to cumulative distribution function, quantile function and Q-function of standard normal distribution. The proposed approximations are easy to use and assure minimum accuracy of two correct decimals.


Non-response, successive sampling, exponential imputation, mean square error, optimum replacement strategy.

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