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Ecological Footprint of Malaysia: Potential Methods and Data Availability

Rawshan Ara Begum, Joy Jacqueline Pereira


The role of this paper is to critically discuss the potential of EF analysis at the different levels (national, state and local) in Malaysia incorporating the existing EF calculations as well as major data requirements. Given the limited existing data, the study recommended a pilot study to calculate EF at the local level, following the combined approach (combining existing national footprint accounts with input-output analysis). In Malaysia, per capita EF and biocapacity for the year 2001 amount to 3.0 gha/cap and 1.9 gha/cap, respectively, which means EF in overshoot. Furthermore, the largest contributor to the EF for each Malaysian is energy consumption (53% of total footprint). Thus, any effort to reduce energy consumption will serve to reduce the EF of the country.


Ecological footprint; Energy consumption; Potential; National; State; Local; Malaysia

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