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Environmental Kuznets curves for bird abundance in Canada: an examination of alternative regression models using panel data

Roberto Martínez-Espiñeira, Van Lantz


This study tests the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for non-migratory bird abundance using panel data from 9 Canadian provinces over a 39 year period. While previous EKC literature associated with bird populations assumes various forms of parameter homogeneity across countries and specifies quadratic or cubic reduced-form models, we allow for parameter heterogeneity and consider up to quartic model specifications across provinces. Overall, we find little support for the EKC hypothesis. Instead, we find support for heterogeneous coefficient estimates and a range of quadratic to quartic model specifications. These results emphasize the important role that model specification plays in analyzing the income-environment relationship.


Bird population trends, environmental Kuznets curve, cointegration, panel data, random coefficients, seemingly unrelated regressions

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