Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

BRDF Empirical Models of Sun Reflection on Sea Surface

Tian Ma, Jianguo Huang, Qunfei Zhang


According to the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) characteristics of the high light reflection on sea surface when observed in a wide range, two kinds of BRDF empirical models are proposed. The first one is based on the Gaussian distribution of the sea surface height-field, and according to the Cook-Torrance model, an anisotropic model of high light reflection is established by the two dimensional decomposition of the roughness parameters in the empirical Gaussian distribution. The second one is based on the Ross-BRDF model, then, the geometric attenuation coefficient and geometric characteristics of the Bank-BRDF empirical model are introduced into the function solution of the micro-plane bidirectional visibility, therefore, calculation of the Ross-BRDF model is simplified. Simulation results indicate that the calculation time could be shorter when using the second model, but the first model is more in line with the realistic lighting effects.


sea surface lighting, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), empirical model, Gaussian distribution.

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.