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Biomechanics of a Rifle-Firing Model: Effects of Rifle Dynamics on Target Accuracy

W. R. Wan Din, A. S. Rambely, A. A. Jemain


We present a mathematical model of a shooter’s position while firing a rifle. The biomechanical effects of rifle dynamics on the shooter in terms of joint loading and the distribution of forces exerted by the rifle among the right and left upper arms and forearms were investigated. The shooting position can be optimized from the kinematic parameters thereby calculated. These thorough kinetic and kinematic analyses can benefit the Malaysian military and sportsmen in terms of improved shooting performance, reduced injuries and cost savings. Kane’s method is applied in the formulation of the dynamic equations of motion and the inverse dynamic method is used to calculate the forces and torques in the system.


shooting model, Kane’s method, inverse dynamic, forces, torques.

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