Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Numerical Modeling of Sedimentation by Storm Waves at Sand Island in Lake Superior, Wisconsin

Lihwa Lin, Zeki Demirbilek, Gregory Mausolf


This paper describes numerical modeling of the combined wave-flow-sedimentation conducted for relocation and design of a marine boat dock facility located at the eastern shore of Sand Island in the southwestern region of Lake Superior in USA. The present boat dock is situated near a creek that supplies watershed sediments and occasional landslides which cause intermittent burial of land-connection section of the dock facility. The U.S. Department of Interior’s National Park Service is considering a new dock location south of the existing dock to avoid future potential sedimentation from the nearby creek. The role and impacts of local winds, waves, currents, and water levels affect utilization of the new dock. The relocated dock is investigated in the present study using the Coastal Modeling System, an integrated numerical modeling system that includes a spectral wave model and a depth-averaged circulation model with sediment transport calculations. The modeling considers winter storms for two real time periods and a representative condition for 50-yr design return period. The study results are quantified in terms of differences for waves, currents and morphological changes between the existing dock and relocation site. The shadowing effect of the northern headland on waves at these sites was investigated. Results showed minor differences between the existing dock and relocated dock for nearshore waves, current speeds and bed changes.


Coastal Modeling, storm waves, sediment transport, Lake Superior.

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information. Also: DOI is paid service which provided by a third party. We never mentioned that we go for this for our any journal. However, journal have no objection if author go directly for this paid DOI service.