Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Measuring the Impact of Water Resources on Specific Growth Factors in Pakistan

K. Zaman, I. A. Shah, M. M. Khan, M. Ahmad


Water is one of the most important natural resources that necessary for sustainable socio- economic development of any economy. It is link and having a relationship with each sector of the society including social, economic and environment. The objective of the study is to examine the long-run relationship between water resources and specific growth factors (energy consumption, water availability in agriculture, agriculture value added, urbanization, population and trade openness) in Pakistan using Johansen cointegration technique. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that there is long-run relationship between all given variables i.e., water resources, energy consumption, water availability in agriculture, agriculture value added, urbanization, population and trade openness. Energy consumption and agriculture value added are positive related to water availability (environmental factor) both in the short and long-run. Increase in urbanization is the major contributor to environmental damages (water availability). Population has a significant impact on water availability in the short-run; however, it is insignificant in the long-run. Trade openness has a negative impact on water recourses in the long-run. The results of impulse response analysis indicate that one standard error shock to water has a negative impact on energy consumption, urbanization and population, while a positive impact on agriculture value added and trade openness over a 10 year period. Similarly, a high proportion of water shock is explained by their own innovations compared to the innovations for energy consumption, agriculture value added, urbanization, population and trade openness variables.


Water, Energy, Agriculture growth, Population, Urbanization, Cointegration, Impulse response function, Pakistan.

Full Text:


Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information.